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Is Affiliate Marketing a Pyramid Scheme? Legit Answers in 2024!

Chris, Chief Editor

Updated Feb 5, 2024

Human experts evaluate all our content

Is affiliate marketing a pyramid scheme? They often get confused, and both are distinctly different!

Affiliate marketing is a legit business model where you earn commissions by promoting real products or services for other companies. You generate sales through your marketing efforts and, in turn, receive a small percentage of the profit.

In contrast, a pyramid scheme is an illegal business model that relies on recruiting members rather than selling actual products or services. Profits in a pyramid scheme are primarily derived from the fees paid by new recruits, and the structure inevitably collapses once recruitment stalls.

Unlike pyramid schemes, affiliate marketing provides real value and has become an integral part of digital marketing strategies for countless businesses, startups, and SaaS brands.

affiliate pyramid scheme

What Are The Characteristics of Pyramid Schemes?

Understanding how pyramid schemes are structured helps you steer clear of potentially fraudulent ventures. Recognize these hallmark traits to protect your investments.

1. High Upfront Costs or Investment Requirements

Pyramid schemes often require a significant initial investment or high upfront costs. These fees can be masked as starter kits or inventory purchases, but unlike legitimate business engagements, money from these investments is used to pay those at the top of the pyramid.

I remember talking to my old neighbor who was part of an MLM, and she had a huge stock of inventory that she desperately tried to sell and get rid of but couldn’t. She turned to step 2, recruiting others to sell the same products to get her upfront investment back.

2. Excessive Emphasis on Earning through Recruitment Fees

The backbone of a pyramid scheme’s revenue stream hinges on the fees new recruits pay. These schemes promote the idea that you earn more money primarily through signing up others rather than through legitimate sales of goods or services. Avoid these scams at all costs!

What Are The Key Differences between Legit Affiliate Marketing vs Pyramid Schemes?

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Affiliate marketing stands as a legitimate business model, but what exactly separates it from a pyramid scheme? Let’s explore!

1. Reviewing and Promoting Genuine Products/Services for a Commission

Affiliate Marketing: You focus on promoting actual products or services and earn a commission for each sale attributed to your marketing efforts. This gives you a direct way to benefit from your audience’s trust and the quality of what you recommend.

Pyramid Scheme: No real products or services are at the core. Earnings come primarily from enlisting others to join under you, creating an unstable and unsustainable system.

2. Profitability Based on Sales, Not Recruitment

Affiliate Marketing: Your income grows with the number of sales generated. This motivates you to build authentic connections with your audience and drive conversions through value provision.

Pyramid Scheme: Here, profit relies heavily on the recruitment of new members, not on selling legitimate goods. This model benefits those at the top at the expense of newcomers, often leading to collapse.

3. Transparency in the Compensation Structure

Affiliate Marketing: Programs are upfront about how and when you’ll earn money. You see a clear commission structure tied to actual sales or leads, providing clarity and predictability.

Pyramid Scheme: The compensation is typically obscure, focusing on recruitment metrics with vague promises of high returns, which rarely materialize for most participants.

4. Legitimate Merchant Partnerships

Affiliate Marketing: There are established partnerships with merchants, ensuring you’re part of a professional ecosystem. These connections are essential for a successful affiliate marketing strategy.

Pyramid Scheme: An absence of merchant relationships is common because there’s no real product or service being sold. This lack of legitimate business partnerships is a stark indicator of the scheme’s illegitimacy.

What Laws and Regulations Are There Governing Pyramid Schemes for Consumers?

Your awareness of the laws and regulations can protect you from falling prey to pyramid schemes.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Guidelines

The FTC outlines clear guidelines to differentiate legitimate multi-level marketing (MLM) from illegal pyramid schemes. Pyramid schemes focus on recruiting members over tangible sales. In contrast, legal MLMs derive revenue primarily from actual products or services sold to consumers, not just participants in the network.

What is an MLM and are they legal?

Multi-level marketing (MLM) is a business model where salespeople earn income by selling products or services and also by recruiting new salespeople. In MLM, the earnings of salespeople often depend not just on their own sales but also on the sales of the people they recruit, creating a tiered structure of distributors and a portion of their recruits’ sales. This is why it’s called “multi-level” — because of the multiple levels of commissions.

The legality of MLMs depends on their structure and operations:

  1. Legit MLMs: These are legal and focus on selling products or services. They offer a commission for sales and may provide bonuses for recruiting new salespeople (called Tier 2 commissions), but the emphasis is on genuine sales to end consumers. A legit MLM that comes to my mind is the marketing software Builderall, which has a 2-tier structure.
  2. Pyramid Schemes: These are illegal in many countries. They may pose as MLMs, but their income structure relies heavily on recruitment rather than sales. As the focus is not on selling a tangible, valuable product or service, they often collapse when they’re unable to recruit new members.

Is affiliate marketing the same as MLM?

No, affiliate marketing is not synonymous with multi-level marketing (MLM). Though both involve selling products, affiliate marketing does not require you to recruit other sellers to earn commissions. Your focus is solely on promoting products, not on building a downline, which is a hallmark of MLM structures.

Consequences for Participating in Illegal Pyramid Scheme

Legal Actions: If you engage in a pyramid scheme, you may face criminal charges, hefty fines, or both. Pyramid schemes violate numerous federal and state laws, leading to significant legal ramifications for perpetrators.

Reputation Damage: Alongside legal consequences, involvement can tarnish your reputation, making future business endeavors challenging. I’ve seen cases of personal brand reputations destroyed and many trying to sell to their friends and families through social media.

What was the most famous pyramid scheme and how did it work?

Bernie Madoff’s Ponzi Scheme is perhaps the most infamous, garnering billions with false promises of high returns.

At the beginning of the early 1990s, Madoff attracted investors with the promise of consistent and unusually high returns. His firm, Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC, appeared highly successful and trustworthy, leading many individuals, charities, and even seasoned investors to invest their money.

Madoff did not invest funds; instead, he used new investors’ money to pay earlier investors, creating the illusion of profitability until the scheme collapsed.

This scheme continued for decades, accumulating billions of dollars, until the economic downturn 2008, when Madoff could no longer sustain the payouts. His fraud, estimated at around $65 billion, was exposed, leading to his arrest and conviction.

Common Misconceptions About Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is often misunderstood, leading to some persistent misconceptions. In this section, we’ll clarify these points for you.

Why does Affiliate Marketing have a negative reputation?

Your skepticism may stem from associating affiliate marketing with get-rich-quick schemes that flood the internet. The overlap with some deceptive practices has tainted its reputation. However, affiliate marketing itself is a legitimate strategy that involves promoting products in return for a commission and does not rely on deceitful tactics.

Can you trust affiliate marketing?

Affiliate marketing is a trustworthy approach as long as you engage with reputable programs and products. Beware of affiliate marketing scams that make unrealistic promises. True affiliate marketing gives you the potential for income based on your promotional efforts and is completely legal. Whether it’s worth it depends on your ability to create effective marketing content and the time you invest.

Pros and Cons of Affiliate Marketing

Understanding the pros and cons of affiliate marketing is essential in determining its value for your business ventures or personal goals as a side hustle. Here’s a super quick overview of why you might consider affiliate marketing:


  • Legitimate Revenue Stream: Align with reputable companies to promote products and receive a cut of the sales.
  • Passive Income Potential: Smart content creation allows for earnings while you sleep, eat, or enjoy life.
  • Low Startup Costs: Start affiliate marketing with minimal investment, as opposed to creating and stocking your own products.
  • Flexibility: Choose when and where to work, giving you control over your schedule and strategies.


  • Time Investment: Initially, considerable time and work are required to generate earnings.
  • No Customer Base: You don’t own the customer relationship, limiting upsell opportunities and long-term customer value.
  • Market Saturation: High competition in popular niches could mean harder work to stand out.
  • Dependence on the Affiliate Program: Changes to program terms or commission rates can impact your income.

Is being an affiliate worth it?

From experience, I can tell that being an affiliate is worth it as you get to partner with legit brands you love and earn commissions from products you already use, making it a legitimate business model for many entrepreneurs.

Affiliate marketing profits come from genuine value creation through product or service advertisements. Be wary of affiliate marketing scams and always partner with established, transparent programs to maintain integrity and sustainability in your online business.

Chris Starkhagen MSc.

Entrepreneur and Founder of chrisstarkhagen.com

Chris writes for men about what to know and how to be a high-value man and networking with high-net-worth individuals. Chris guides readers on men’s business, men’s home office, men’s performance, men’s accessories, and the best products for men to craft a timeless style. Whether you’re already a high net-worth man seeking your next luxury watch or a young G who wants a lifestyle upgrade, Chris connects men with the resources needed to elevate life as a man.